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The Folk File: A Folkie's Dictionary
by Bill Markwick (1945-2017)

      FolkLib Index Note, 8-09-2005: This set of pages was previously installed at Stephen Spencer's FolkBook Web site (1994-2002), at the various alias Ohio State University URL's listed below. It now has a new permanent home here with the full approval of its author, Bill Markwick. I will just be installing updates he sends, so if you have questions about the content, or additions/corrections to any "Folk File" page (except this one), please contact Bill.

Doug Henkle

Webmasters: Please update your link to "The Folk File"

      Obsolete Page Titles and various alias URL's deleted sometime in 2002 that people still linked to as of August 2005:
The Folk File (Version 2.01, Jul/96) - obsolete title
The Folk File (Version 3.00, Feb/97) - obsolete title
Folkies (music)                      - obsolete title
Folk Music Dictionary                - obsolete title             - obsolete URL   - obsolete URL   - obsolete URL - obsolete URL             - obsolete URL            - obsolete URL  - obsolete URL             - obsolete URL             - obsolete URL

Official Page Title and URL replacement:

   The Folk File: A Folkie's Dictionary
If you link to one of the other "Folk File" pages,
      1) All file names are now all lower case
      2) All file extensions are now ".shtml", not ".html"
        For example: A.html is now a.shtml

      Links to specific entries work as before. All Anchor Tags, "name=", are identical to the old site. Just change the domain and directory names, change ".html" to ".shtml", and change all file name upper case letters to lower case. For example, the old URL,
is now

      Only one other change was made by the Webmaster and it was in order to conform to "FolkLib Index" standards. On any "Folk File" page, all links in bold letters go to someone else's Web site not on this domain. All other links go to another location here.

      Note also, except for this single Webmaster's documentation page, all of the other 28 pages that make up the "Folk File" are as maintained exlusively by Bill Markwick. Once you visit any "Folk File" page, you will find no link to any page in the FolkLib Index (except this one) unless it was put there by Bill.

Created by Bill Markwick - (1945-2017)

08-01-2017 - Webmaster's Note:
      Concerning additions/corrections, in Bill's memory, the content of these pages will remain the same as he originally sent it to me, with only two exceptions, missing birth/death dates, and fixing broken off-site links. Individuals who passed away since will have their passing noted here, For example, the Paul, Les entry was updated from "(1915- )" to "(1915-[2009])".
      Bill Markwick very seldom used the characters "[]".
All original uses of "[]" by Bill Markwick:


      And one defintion I submitted to Bill on 9-03-2005: "I hope you add a definition of "Luddite", which you use at Folkie Profile, but do not define. Usually it is used in describing someone who just dislikes or distrusts technology. However, unfortunately in the past, out-of-control Luddites, aka "terrorists", have taken their dislike to extremes and actually blown up computer centers, giving the word a not always peaceful meaning." But he did not get back to me on this. As pointed out by Wikipedia every historical use of the term "Luddite" was connected to deliberate violence. In my opinion, people should stop using this term unless the individual is using drastic violence to protest against something they don't like.

      Luddite (lud'it) n. a member of any of various bands of workers in England (1811-16) organized to destroy manufacturing machinery, under the belief that its use dimished employment. 1805-15; after Ned Ludd, 18th-century Leicestershire, England worker who originated the idea. *

* Source: Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, New Deluxe Edition, Thunder Bay Press, 2001, p. 1143

"Folk File" Copyright Notice
      Except for this Webmaster's page, every "Folk File" page at this site is  Copyright © 1993-2005  by Bill Markwick. The "Folk File" was first put on-line in Sept. 1994 when FolkBook went public, but it was first distributed on floppies with a DOS browser in 1993. Unless a line stating "(last updated ...)" has been added at the top of a "Folk File" page, that page has not been updated by Bill Markwick since 1997. Broken off-site links have been corrected, but as no actual content was changed, no "(last updated ...)" line was added to pages where those link corrections were made.

      Thank you for visiting Bill Markwick's The Folk File: A Folkie's Dictionary. -

Known links to:  The Folk File: A Folkie's Dictionary
      Be sure to link to  and not this page.

Please send additions and/or corrections for this page only to Doug Henkle:
P.O. Box 331, Ripon, WI 54971-0331

Created by Bill Markwick (1945-2017)


Copyright © 2005-2017 Douglas H. Henkle, All Rights Reserved.